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What is Autonomous Vehicle for Beginners?
Date of issue:2022 / 04 / 06

Autonomous vehicle refers to the transport vehicles equipped with automatic guidance devices such as electromagnetic or optical, which can travel along the specified guidance path, and have safety protection and various transfer functions. It is also called autonomous forklifts, automated guided vehicles/forklifts.

 

Why Are There More and More Autonomous Vehicles in the Market?

In the previous warehouse logistics, manual operations were generally used to complete the heavy transportation work, which is not only time-consuming and labor-intensive but also may cause unnecessary harm to personal safety in special environments. Autonomous vehicles solve personnel shortages, reduce labor costs, eliminate human error, improve safety, and increase productivity. Errors caused by human factors will be eliminated, and accidents will be reduced for most of the work. The indoor space is maximized, and the storage capacity can be greatly increased.

 

Autonomous Vehicles Smart Forklift Classification?

  • Pallet Mover Autonomous forklift

  • Reach Truck Autonomous forklift

  • Pallet Stacker Autonomous forklift

  • CounterbalancedAutonomous forklift

  • Narrow aisleAutonomous forklift


The Advantages of Autonomous Vehicles?

AutonomousVehicles can make the arrangement of goods more orderly and tidyData analysisand remote control via Autonomous Vehicles central control systemIf it ismanually engaged in the work of moving the goods, the product may bedamaged due to the irregular operation or negligence of the labor, butthe Autonomous Vehicles can avoid the loss caused by this mistake tothe enterprise.AutonomousVehicles can work in environments where personnel are not suitable or havepotential safety hazards.AutonomousVehicles can save a lot of labor and quickly pay back the investment,while increasing employee turnover for the boring mechanical handlingwork.


Most Used Navigation Methods of Autonomous Vehicles and Their Advantages and Disadvantages?


Magnetic Stripe Navigation

The magnetic stripe navigation technology is similar to the electromagnetic navigation, the difference is that the magnetic stripe is attached to the road surface of the metal wire used, and it is realized by guiding the magnetic stripe to detect the signal.


Advantages: AGV positioning is accurate, the laying, changing or expansion of the path is relatively easy for complex electromagnetic navigation, and the cost level of the magnetic stripe is low.

Disadvantages: The magnetic stripe is easy to break and requires regular maintenance. The path change requires re-laying of the magnetic stripe. The AGV can only walk according to the magnetic stripe, and cannot realize intelligent avoidance or real-time task changes through the control system.


QR Code Navigation

The principle of two-dimensional code navigation is to scan the two-dimensional code placed on the ground by the camera, and obtain the current position information by analyzing the two-dimensional code information. Two-dimensional coded navigation is usually combined with inertial navigation to achieve precise positioning. Inertial navigation is the use of mobile robot sensors (photoelectric encoders, gyroscopes) to obtain the position and attitude of the robot, usually as an auxiliary positioning.


Advantages: accurate positioning, small and flexible, easy to lay and change the development path, easy to manage and control information communication, no interference to sound and light.

Disadvantages: The path problem requires regular maintenance. If there is no complex site, the QR code needs to be replaced more frequently. Students are strictly required to the accuracy and service life of the gyroscope. In addition, there are certain development requirements for the flatness of the site, and the price level is relatively high.


Laser Navigation

Laser reflector navigation is to install a precise reflector around the AGV's driving data path, and the laser scanner is installed on the AGV body. When the laser scanner moves with the AGV, we emit a laser beam, and the emitted laser beam is directly affected and reflected back by the multiple groups of reflectors laid along the path of the AGV driving vehicle, triggering the work record of the controller and the rotating laser head encounters various reflections. angle of the board.


Advantages: The way of laser navigation enables AGV to flexibly plan the path, accurately locate, the drive path is flexible and changeable, the structure is more square and convenient, and it can be adapted.
Disadvantages: High manufacturing cost, relatively high environmental requirements (external light, ground requirements, visibility requirements, etc.).


Visual Navigation

The acquired image information is visually navigated around the operating area through the navigation method of the vehicle-mounted AGV vision sensor. It requires hardware vision cameras, lights and light support to enable this and other types of navigation. The camera of the way is captured by the AGV in the process of automatic generation of the texture mapping of the ground movement, and then to estimate the current posture of the mobile robot, the texture information of the mobile robot grounded during the operation process, and the registration is obtained by comparing with the texture mapping of the self-image localization.


Advantages: The advantages of visual texture navigation are that the hardware design cost is relatively low, and the positioning can be precise.

Disadvantages: According to the requirements of the environment, the texture information of the ground operation is required. When the operation is performed in a large area, the navigation map drawing time is relatively long. Therefore, the current visual navigation technology is not mature enough.